B-17 Bomber takes off for action. Boeing plants built a total of 6,981 B-17s in various models, and another 5,745 were built under a nationwide collaborative effort by Douglas and Lockheed (Vega) (Source:
Boeing).

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The Year is 1943 ...

"In wartime, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies." --Prime Minister Winston Churchill, 1943

Winston Churchill is the chief architect of Operation Bodyguard, which is the code name for the deception plan to distract the Germans from the true mission of Operation Overlord, the code name for the D-Day invasion. The Allies with the help of Polish cryptographers crack the code of the German encrypting device known as the ENIGMA machine. Cracking the code allows the Allies to monitor the reactions of the Germans to deceptive moves made by the Allies.



Congress appropriates $100 billion toward World War II.

Casablanca Conference signals the beginning of the end for Hitler and Nazis. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill demand "unconditional surrender" of the Nazis at Casablanca, Morocco. President Roosevelt leaves the U.S. and returns from Morocco in secrecy and is the first U.S. president to leave the country during war.

U.S. Marines finish remaining Japanese soldiers at Guadalcanal.

President Roosevelt initiates wage and price freeze to hold inflation.

U.S. and Great Britain invade Italy, including Sicily.

Americans defeated by Germans at Kasserine Pass, Tunisia.

Roosevelt and Churchill meet Chinese Head of Nationalist government Chiang Kai-shek at the Cairo Conference. Allies agree to strip Japan of all islands gained in the Pacific since 1914. Allies agree to restore Chinese territories stolen by Japan. Allies agree to strive to help Korea become free and independent.

Roosevelt and Churchill meet Premier Stalin of the Soviet Union at the Tehran Conference to express their resolve to destroy Nazi Germany, to help people live free and untouched by tyranny and to confirm alliance with Iran.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower is named Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe.

Congress approves federal income tax withholding.

Race riots in Detroit and Harlem kill 40. Detroit is the most important production center during World War II and is known as the "Arsenal of Democracy." The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People accuses the nation of hypocritical commitment to personal freedoms abroad while discriminating and segregating at home. Fighting begins among teenagers near a naval armory with U.S. sailors backing-up white teenagers. Fighting spreads throughout city. The following day, federal troops armed with bayonets help mayor Edward J. Jeffries and Michigan governor Harry Francis Kelly shut down Detroit. One month later similar riots erupt in New York City's West Harlem which require military control. The Axis Powers claim the riots show the U.S. is full of social injustice with gangster capitalistic police.

Chicago opens it first subway after groundbreaking in 1938. Construction is accomplished in difficult soft, watery clay without a single cave-in. Opening ceremony is held under State Street. People who buy War Bonds get free rides.

Judy, the Elephant, is transferred from Brookfield Zoo to Lincoln Park Zoo, but refuses van transportation and walks the eighteen miles.


Casablanca
wins an Oscar
for Best Picture
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